Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Not Just Half-Way...


In 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia).  Abyssinia, a member of the League of Nations, appealed for help.  The League, under the leadership of Great Britain, imposed sanctions on Italy.  But the sanctions were only half-way.  The importation of many commodities was prohibited, but oil, essential to the Italian war effort was permitted.  Additionally, in the words of Winston Churchill: 
The export of aluminium to Italy was strictly forbidden; but aluminium was almost the only metal that Italy produced in quantities beyond her own needs.  The importation of scrap iron and iron ore into Italy was sternly vetoed in the name of public justice.  But as the Italian metallurgical industry made but little use of them, and as steel billets and pig iron were not interfered with, Italy suffered no hindrance.  Thus the measures pressed with so great a parade were not real sanctions to paralyse the aggressor, but merely such halfhearted sanctions as the aggressor would tolerate, because in fact, though onerous, they stimulated Italian war spirit.  The League of Nations therefore proceeded to the rescue of Abyssinia on the basis that nothing must be done to hamper the invading Italian armies. (Churchill, Memoirs of the Second World War)
 The British navy, which could easily have stopped the Italians, did not lift a finger to stop them.  Italy conquered Abyssinia, gained prestige, and joined an alliance with Hitler.  Britain was held in contempt across Europe.  Hitler viewed Britain as weak and degenerate and continued his preparations for World War II with increased boldness.  The half-halfheartedness of the British government in that endeavor brought the nation nothing but trouble and disgrace. Halfhearted measures are never good enough.  If anything is to be done, it must be done wholeheartedly.

Several Bible verses support this conclusion:

"Jesus said unto him, No man having put his hand to the plough, 
and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God."  --Luke 9:62

" For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?  Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold begin to mock him, Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish."  --Luke 14:28-30

"And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men..."  --Colossians 3:23

Don't start something unless you can and will complete it.  You can do almost anything if you really set your heart on getting it done, and completion--finishing a project--will always give you a sense of satisfaction.  It will do you a lot of good both materially and emotionally to get even one project done.

Of course, if you make the mistake of starting a bad project, quit it and move on to another as quickly as possible.  But starting 100 projects and not finishing any of them will do you no good.  It will just be a waste of time.  Unfortunately, that is exactly what a lot of people do.  

They start reading one book, and before they finish it, they get bored and start another.  Before their lives are over they may have 50 books that they've started and never finished.  Unless they are "Preface" fans, what good did it do them?  It's a clear road to ignorance.

They start several sewing projects and handi-work projects (knitting, crocheting)  at once and can never finish them all.  What good is a half-finished sweater, plus a half-finished scarf, plus a half-finished skirt going to do them on a cold day?  I think they will be shivering.

They start learning languages and never complete their studies.  What good does it do anyone to say a sentence in a mixture of English, German, Thai, Russian, French, and Spanish? They would be better off sticking with one or two languages.

And have you ever tried to eat a half-baked cake?  Half-cooked meat-loaf?  Half-done Jello?  What good would it do you? Don't try, you'd get very sick.

Don't be like those whom I mentioned above.

Sure, it makes sense that as soon as you realize you're on the wrong road, stop!  Stop and immediately change your course to the right course before it's too late.  We all make mistakes.

  But if life is just a bunch of half-hearted, half-completed projects, we have gotten nowhere.  We have completed nothing.  

Whatever we do, we must do it wholeheartedly and diligently as unto the Lord because we are servants of the Lord Jesus Christ who gives us strength even in our weaknesses.  

Let me get back to work on that scarf I'm crocheting...  God bless you all!

Wednesday, January 9, 2013

What Have We to Fear?

"Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine.  When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kindle upon thee.  For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy one of Israel, thy Saviour."
--Isaiah 43:1-3
What have we to fear when God is on our side?
In greatest darkness, He is the light.
Jesus is faithful; In Him we can confide;
None can dare to stand against His might.

With Christ to guide, we need not fear the future;
He holds it in His Almighty hand.
He is the Rock on which we our lives structure;
Other foundations are sinking sand.

In that hidden, secret place of the Most High,
He will see us through the present storm.
Our greatest expectations He will defy
As to His righteous will we conform.

What have we to fear when God is on our side?
Nothing!  No circumstance or problem--
God is greater!  He helped the poor soul that cried.
Give your fears to the Lord; He'll solve them.

We have nothing to fear with God on our side.

Bible Verses:
"Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh: is there any thing too hard for me."  --Jeremiah 32:27

"I the LORD thy God will hold thy right hand, saying unto thee, 
Fear not; I will help thee."  --Isaiah 41:13

"What shall we then say to these things?  If God be for us, who can be against us?"  --Romans 8:31

Trust in the Lord Jesus and fear not!

Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Count Your Blessings


There are a few  never-fail remedies for times we feel discouraged or sad, or just need something to make us  smile: one is counting our blessings!

Lamentations is one of the last places I think most people would think to look in the Bible for cheerful verses, but even the weeping prophet had something for which he could be thankful--something that gave him hope.

"This I recall to my mind, therefore have I hope.  It is of the Lord's mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions fail not.  They are new every morning: great is thy faithfulness.  The LORD is my portion, saith my soul; therefore will I hope in him.  It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the salvation of the LORD."  --Lamentations 3:21-26

These were the words of a man whose nation was overthrown, whose neighbors died of starvation or were killed with the sword, whose city was burned with fire; but in spite of it all, he had hope!

These are the words of a young prophet who was very unpopular.  "I was a derision to all my people."

As a matter of fact, these were the words of a man who was hunted by his own family and friends.  His own people tried to persecute and kill him.  He was thrown into a dungeon.  Even from there, he called upon the name of the Lord and was able to testify that: "Thou [Lord] drewest near in the day that I called upon thee.  Thou saidst; Fear not."

He watched the flames licking up his city.  He cried over the ashes.  But He looked up and saw God's mercy.  God comforted him.  God said, "Fear not!"

Jeremiah, the weeping prophet, had something to be thankful for.  You may have problems, but remember, there is always something for which you can be thankful.  

We have a God who hears us when we pray.  We have a God who cares about us and whose mercies are new every morning.  We have a God who says, "Fear not!"

Start counting your blessings.  Count the little things and the big things.  Be thankful for a hearty breakfast or delicious dinner; many in the world are hungry.  Be thankful for the clothes that keeps you warm and the roof above you.  Be thankful for electricity and running water; less than a century ago these were considered luxuries!  Be thankful for the stars in all their beauty.  Be thankful for God's wonderful creation.  Be thankful for your family, your friends, and your loved ones.  For many people, a happy family is only a dream. 

Counting your blessings will bring a smile to your face and a song to your heart.

This song, "I'm a Cowboy Rockefeller"--as sung by my brother--is one of my favorites.


As one old proverb says,
"If you want to feel rich, just count the things you have that money can't buy."

Monday, January 7, 2013

The USS Enterprise: 1775-2012 (Part 4)

The USS Enterprise with the 5th Fleet
Enterprise VII- Continued

The USS Enterprise was still under repairs when she engaged the enemy in the Battle of Guadalcanal, during which she helped sink 16 ships and damage 8 others. 
On February 17, 1944, the Enterprise launched the first night radar bombing attack ever made from a U.S. carrier.  She went on to play a pivotal part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, which ended in a sweeping victory for the U.S.  The Enterprise fought in the Battle of the Leyte Gulf, and then supported a variety of invasions, including the Battle of Iwo Jima.  On the 14th of May 1945, a kamikaze Zero crashed into the carrier, and she moored in Puget Sound Naval Yard for repairs.  She was there when Japan surrendered in August 15, 1945.  

The USS Enterprise in 1945 with New York City in the background
The USS Enterprise (CV-6) was awarded 20 Battle Stars and received a Presidential Unit Citation and Navy Unit Commendation.  She also became the only non-British ship to be awarded the British Admiralty Pennant, the Royal Navy’s most prestigious decoration. The USS Enterprise was decomissioned on the 17th of February 1947 as the most highly decorated U.S. ship ever. 

After efforts to raise money to buy the ship from the U.S. Navy and create a museum out of her failed, she was sold to the Lipsett Corporation and scrapped.

Enterprise VIII


The USS Enterprise CVN-65 was commissioned in 1961.  It was built at a cost of $451.3 million, and, at 342 meters, is the longest naval vessel in the world.  It is the only carrier with more than two nuclear reactors, and was also the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier in the world.  It carried 3000 crew members and 1800 members of the air-wing. 

During the Cuban Missile Crisis it served in a blockade.  During the Vietnam war, pilots from the Enterprise flew more than 13,400 missions in just 132 days in 1967.
Planes from the Enterprise also served in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq which followed the terrorist attacks in New York on September 11, 2012. 
The USS Enterprise was deactivated on the 1st of December 2012, and is scheduled to be decommissioned in 2013.  When it is decommissioned it will have been in service for 51 consecutive years, longer than any other US carrier.

Enterprise IX
An artist's impression of the future USS Enterprise CVN 80
U.S. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced in December that CVN 80, the 3rd Gerald R. Ford-class U.S. aircraft carrier, would be christened as the ninth USS Enterprise.  Construction is scheduled to begin in 2018, and the ship should be ready by 2025.  However, Congress, in an effort to save money (!?) is considering delaying the building of this ship.

  

Much has changed since that day in May of 1775 when 36 rebels captured the first USS Enterprise from a British shipyard in Canada. The men who armed that little 70-ton sloop with twelve 4-pounder guns and 10 swivel guns and sailed it in the Great Lakes would not believe that 237 years later their progeny are now retiring a 94,781 ton aircraft carrier by the same name, USS Enterprise.

The USS Enterprise holds an integral place in the naval history of the United States, and each of the 8 ships that have borne that name have served with distinction.
  
The USS Enterprise will never be forgotten.

Sunday, January 6, 2013

The USS Enterprise: 1775-2012 (Part 3)

The Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Bomb #3 hits the Enterprise
The USS Enterprise returned to Pearl Harbor for a month of rest and repairs.  She then supported troop landings in the Solomon Islands and worked to protect communications in the Solomon Island area.
     At 09:50 on August 23rd, a PBY Catalina sighted a Japanese carrier force.  The next day, Japanese dive bombers attacked the USS Enterprise which immediately went into evasive maneuvers.  Due to these maneuvers and heavy anti-aircraft, the first 9 bombers missed the carrier.  At 16:44, however, a bomb hit the Enterprise, killing 35 men, wounding 70, and penetrating the flight deck, exploding below the waterline.  Thirty seconds later,  a second bomb hit 4.6 meters from the first one and started a fire.  A third bomb exploded on impact and created a 3 meter hole in the deck.
Damage control crews worked effectively and with quick repairs, the Enterprise was able to return to harbor under her own power.

In spite of the damage inflicted on the Enterprise, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons is generally considered a victory for the United States.  Planes from the USS Saratoga sank the Japanese carrier Ryujo, and Japan faced more losses in the battle than did the Americans.

The Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

The Japanese carrier Zuiho
After repairs, the Enterprise returned to the high seas, this time accompanied by the USS Hornet, the only other still operational carrier in the Pacific.

Early in the morning of October 26, 1942, a Catalina sighted the Japanese  force.  At 6:45 a U.S. scout plane sighted the main Japanese carriers.  Thirteen minutes later, a Japanese scout plane sighted the Hornet.  Both sides scrambled to launch their strike aircraft. 

The Japanese planes were in the air first.  By 7:40, they had launched 64 aircraft toward the Hornet.  Meanwhile, U.S. scout aircraft wasted no time in harassing the  Japanese carriers.  While other scouts distracted the Japanese combat air patrol, two U.S. SBD Dauntless scout aircraft dropped their bombs into the carrier Zuiho, heavily damaging it so it could not land planes.
USS Enterprise during the Battle of Santa Cruz
At 08:00 , the Hornet launched its first strike group of 15 dive bombers, 6 torpedo bombers, and 8 fighter planes (Wildcats).  At 8:10,  the Enterprise launched 18 planes.
Also at 8:10, the second wave of Japanese planes took off.
At 8:20, 24 more planes from the Hornet  took off.
 The Japanese third wave was in the air by 8:40 and by 9:10, the Japanese had 110 planes on their way towards the American carrier force.

At 8:40, the Japanese and American aircraft groups passed within sight of each other.  Nine Zeros attacked the group from the Enterprise out of the sun, and in the resulting conflict, 4 Zeros, 3 Wildcats, and 2 U.S. torpedo bombers were shot down. 

Dive bombers from the Hornet hit the carrier Shokaku  with 3 bombs, ruining the flight deck and damaging the interior of the ship.  The torpedo bombers from the Hornet and Enterprise failed to find the Japanese carriers, and caused little or no damage on the ships they attacked.  Other torpedo bombers and dive bombers from the American carriers attacked and severely damaged the heavy cruiser Chikuma, forcing it to turn back for repairs.
A near miss to the USS Enterprise
Meanwhile, the Japanese succeeded in hitting the Hornet with 3 bombs.  A damaged Japanese dive-bomber hit the Hornet’s stack.  Two torpedoes knocked out the engines, and another damaged dive bomber intentionally crashed into the carrier’s side, starting a fire.  Fires were under control by 10:00, and attempts were made to tow the Hornet to safety.

Meanwhile, planes from both carriers landed on the Enterprise.

  The Japanese planes, returning to their carriers, spotted the USS Enterprise and reported her position.  The second wave of Japanese planes attacked the carrier.  Two 250 kg bombs crashed into the Enterprise and another Japanese bomber scored a near-miss.  Twelve of the nineteen bombers were shot down.  Twenty minutes later, Japanese torpedo bombers were sighted, but their attack was ineffectual.  Next, at 11:21, came another wave of dive bombers.  They scored one near miss.  Many were shot down, and the survivors returned to their carriers to tell of “unbelievable opposition, of skies chocked with anti-aircraft shell bursts and tracers.”   
The USS Hornet sinking
At 14:45, the cruiser Northampton began slowly towing the Hornet.  The Hornet’s crew were on the verge of restoring partial power to the ship when at 15:20 another wave of enemy planes arrived.  A torpedo struck the Hornet, destroying the repairs and causing  heavy flooding and a 14 degree list.  The crew abandoned the ship, and all men had lift the ship by 16:27.  Two more bombs hit the ship.  She was scuttled and abandoned, and American forces retreated.

The Japanese had won a tactical victory, but not a strategic victory.  As Historian Eric Hammel put it, “Santa Cruz was a Japanese victory. That victory cost Japan her last best hope to win the war.”

The USS Enterprise was now the only functioning U.S. aircraft carrier left in the Pacific.  Her crew defiantly hung out a banner which read,

“Enterprise vs. Japan”


Part 4: Victory and Enterprise VIII will be posted tomorrow.

Saturday, January 5, 2013

The USS Enterprise: 1775-2012 (Part 2)

Enterprise VII
World War II--Before the War
The seventh USS Enterprise (CV-6), also called  the “Big E,” was launched from the dry-docks on October 3rd , 1936.  The ship had a displacement of 19,800 tons as built, over 25,000 tons with a full load.  Its length at the waterline was 230 meters. Total length was  251.38 meters.  The aircraft carrier was commissioned in 1938, cruised to Rio de Jeneiro, and then toured the Caribbean.  In 1939, the USS Enterprise was ordered to the Pacific.  She was first based in San Diego where she was used in the filming of the movie Dive Bomber.  Then, President Roosevelt ordered the Enterprise and her fleet to Pearl Harbor.   The carrier left Pearl Harbor on November 28, 1941 to deliver a Marine fighter squadron to Wake Island.  She was returning to Hawaii when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th.

Pearl Harbor



Eighteen SBD Dauntless planes from the Enterprise’s Scouting Squad 6 and Bombing Squad 6 reached Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack.  They were very surprised, but went into action defending the port immediately.  Several planes were lost due to enemy aircraft and friendly fire.

 After the attack, Enterprise planes set out in search of the enemy fleet.  The search proved futile, and the Enterprise visited Pearl Harbor for food and supplies the night of December 8th.  She then set out to patrol against further attacks on the Hawaiian Islands.
On December 10th, her planes sank a Japanese submarine.

The Doolittle Raid
During the next few months, the Enterprise escorted convoys and attacked Japanese positions.
In 1942, she escorted the  Hornet, which was carrying Doolittle’s Raiders.  The Hornet’s flight deck was covered with B-25s and could not be used by the Hornet’s own planes, so the Enterprise’s planes flew combat patrol while the Raiders took off.
The carrier’s part in the Doolittle mission accomplished, the Enterprise hurried to the South Pacific to reinforce aircraft carriers there.  However, she arrived too late for the Battle of the Coral Sea.

The Battle of Midway
The Enterprise’s next assignment was to “hold Midway [island] and  inflict maximum damage on the enemy by strong attrition tactics.”  The carrier left Pearl Harbor on the 28th of May after intense preparation.  On this mission, the Enterprise was to serve as Rear Admiral Raymond A. Sprance’s flagship. The Enterprise was accompanied by the Hornet, six cruisers, and ten destroyers.  On the 30th of May, the Yorktown (hastily repaired) 3 cruisers, and 6 destroyers also left Pearl Harbor to join the Enterprise and the Hornet.

Meanwhile, four Japanese aircraft carriers, the Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu, and Soryu, were also on their way to Midway Island, at the extreme northwest of the Hawaiian island chain.  With the carriers were 2 battleships and 15 support ships.  The Japanese believed the Yorktown had been sunk in the Battle of the Coral Sea and that the Americans had been demoralized by their many losses in the Pacific.  Their reason for attacking Midway was not specifically to gain the island, which to them had little value, but to draw out the remainder of the American Pacific fleet and destroy it. What they did not know was that the Americans had broken Japanese naval code, and therefore their plans were not secret.  The Americans had planned a counter-surprise attack.
Midway Island

The Battle of Midway began at 12:30 on June 3rd as 9 B-17s took off from Midway Island.  Three hours later, the Flying Fortresses found the Japanese and, in spite of heavy anti-aircraft fire, released their bombs.  None of the bombs found their targets. 

At 01:00 the next morning, a PBY Catalina from Midway launched the only successful U.S. torpedo strike of the entire battle, hitting the Japanese oil tanker Akebono MaruVice-Admiral ChÅ«ichi Nagumo's (Japanese) carrier striking force launched its attack on Midway Island at 04:30 with 36 Aichi dive bombers, 36 Nakajima torpedo bombers, and their escort of 36 Zero fighter planes.  Nagumo also deployed his combat air patrol and 8 search aircraft.

     Radar alerted the Americans to the oncoming Japanese force, and while bombers were assembled to strike the Japanese carrier force, U.S. fighter planes (Wildcats and Buffalos) remained behind to defend Midway.  Most of the U.S. fighters were shot down within the first few minutes.  Anti-aircraft batteries put up a good show, but the Japanese succeeded in bombing and heavily damaging  the base at Midway. The American bombers had little effect on the Japanese carrier force.

Torpedo Squadron 6 prepares for takeoff on the USS Enterprise
It was time for the air forces of the carriers to show their prowess.   Admiral Fletcher of the Yorktown, the overall commander, ordered Admiral Spruance of the Enterprise to launch the attack as soon as possible.  Spruance gave the order “Launch the attack” at 06:00.  Shortly after 07:00,  the planes took off from the Enterprise and Hornet.  Spruance ordered his planes to proceed to the target as quickly as possible, without waiting for the entire task force to assemble.

Admiral Fletcher’s planes took off from the Yorktown at 08:00. 

The aircraft encountered difficulty finding the target.  The 10 Wildcat fighter planes from the Hornet ran out of fuel and ditched in the ocean, leaving Torpedo Squadron 8 without an escort.  All of the Torpedo 8 planes were shot down during their attack at 9:20 without inflicting damage on the carriers.  Only one man survived.
The fighter escort from the Enterprise also ran low on fuel.  They turned back and Torpedo Squadron 6 lost 10 out of 14 planes, also without inflicting damage on the enemy.

On the Hornet
The torpedo bombers from the Yorktown faced similar losses, losing 10 of 12 Devastators when they attacked at 10:00.  Thanks  to the bad performance of their torpedoes, they also obtained no results.

  The torpedo bombers did, however, keep the Japanese carriers busy and force them into evasive maneuvers,  making them unable to launch  a counterattack.  The torpedo planes also forced the Japanese Combat Air Patrol out of position and made the Zeros run low on ammunition and fuel.

Three squadrons of dive-bombers from the Enterprise and Yorktown were quickly approaching.  They too had had difficulty in finding the carriers and were running low on fuel.  Some of the planes were forced to ditch in the sea before the attack even began because of fuel exhaustion.
Japanese carriers during the dive-bombing attack
The remaining bombers, however, arrived at the perfect time to attack.  Dive bombers under Squadron Commander McClusky of the Enterprise scored 4 or 5 hits on the KagaYorktown bombers led by Max Leslie hit the Soryu three times.  Both the Soryu and Kaga were ablaze within 6 minutes.  One of Lieutenant Commander Richard Hasley Best’s bombs hit the Akagi, and one of his men (from the Enterprise) scored a near-miss. The Akagi, Soryu, and Kaga were all abandoned and scuttled.

The only Japanese carrier left undamaged was the Hiryu. The Hiryu wasted no time in looking for revenge.

The USS Yorktown after being hit by dive bombers--then hit by a torpedo

Japanese dive-bombers from the Hiryu hit the Yorktown 3 times, snuffing out its boilers.  However, the Yorktown’s damage control teams patched the decks of the carrier so well that the next wave of Japanese—torpedo bombers—mistook the Yorktown for an undamaged carrier, the Enterprise. The Yorktown received 2 torpedo hits, and with no power and a 26 degree list to port, she was forced out of action.  Admiral Fletcher moved his command staff to the heavy cruiser Astoria, and soon after, he handed over command of the mission to  Admiral Spruance of the Enterprise.

The Hiryu Burning


Late in the afternoon, a scout plane from the Yorktown spotted the Hiryu.  Enterprise dive-bombers, aided by 10 Yorktown dive-bombers, launched their final attack. 

Although the Hiryu was defended by more than a dozen Zeros, the dive-bombers were successful with their attack and 4 or 5 bombs plunged into the Hiryu.  Soon the carrier was ablaze.  After unsuccessful attempts to stop the fire, the Hiryu was evacuated.  The carrier was sunk, taking with it Rear Admiral Yamaguchi, one of Japan’s greatest carrier commanders, who chose to go down with his ship.

The Battle of Midway (June 4-7th), in which the USS Enterprise played an important role, is often considered the most important battle of the Pacific in World War II.  It was the first clear victory for the Americans, and a turning point in the Pacific theater.

The USS Enterprise: 1775-2012: Part 3 (The Battle of the Eastern Solomons and Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands) will be posted tomorrow.

Friday, January 4, 2013

The USS Enterprise: 1775-2012 (Part 1)

One of the last acts of the 112th Congress was for the Senate to unanimously agree (yesterday, January 3, 2013) to S. Res. 630, a resolution congratulating the Navy and the current and former officers and crew of the U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN 65) on completion of the 26th and final deployment of the vessel.

The U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN-65) was deactivated on December 1st, 2012.  Over 100,000 Marines and sailors (including my Uncle Rick) served aboard her during her 51 years in service.


This U.S.S. Enterprise is 8th in a long line of ships by that name that served their country well.  Everything has changed so much in the past 238 years.  The U.S. Navy is no exception--just take a look at the evolution of the U.S.S. Enterprise:

Enterprise I
(The Revolutionary War)

The first USS Enterprise was originally a 70-ton British supply sloop.  Colonel Benedict Arnold (who later became an infamous traitor) and 35 men captured it from a shipyard in Quebec, Canada on the 18th of May 1775. They armed the ship with twelve 4-pounder guns and 10 swivel guns.  The ship was manned by 50 officers and enlisted men.  The USS Enterprise was engaged in the Battle of Quebec and the Battle of Valcour Island. On the July 7, 1777 , the ship was assigned to duty during the evacuation of Fort Ticonderoga.  The small American fleet was no match for the British, and the Enterprise was ran aground on the shores of Lake Champlain.  The Americans burned the ship to avoid its re-capture.

Enterprise II
(The Revolutionary War)

The second Enterprise was purchased by the Continental Navy in 1776.   Because she was commissioned before the first USS Enterprise was deactivated, she is not called the USS Enterprise--just the Enterprise. She was a 25 ton, 8-gun schooner and carried a crew of 80 men.  The ship was commanded by Captain James Campbell.  During the Revolutionary War, the Enterprise guarded convoys and protected the shores against British pillagers.

Enterprise III
(The Quasi-War, The First Barbary War, and the War of 1812)
USS Enterprise vs. Tripoli
The third Enterprise was built in 1799 by Henry Spencer for $16,240.   It was a 135 ton, 12  6-pounder gun schooner, and was manned by a crew of 70.  The ship was rebuilt several times, eventually becoming a 16 gun, 165 ton brig rigged ship. Its first task was defending United States Merchantmen in the Caribbean against French Privateers during the Quasi-War with France. In 1801, the Enterprise joined other ships for the First Barbary War.  Not far from Malta, she defeated the Tripolitan corsair Tripoli after a 3 hour battle.  No one on the USS Enterprise was injured while 40% of the Tripoli’s crew were killed or wounded.  Throughout the remainder of her patrol in the Mediterranean during the war with Tripoli , the USS Enterprise made a good showing for herself.
The USS Enterprise was repaired at Washington Naval Yard, and recomissioned in  1811.  She was at sea when war was declared against Great Britian.
On the 5th of September 1813, the HMS Boxer  and the USS Enterprise sighted each other off the coast of Maine.  The British commander Captain Samuel Blyth nailed the Union Jack to his ship’s mast, indicating his intention of fighting to the end.  Lieutenant William Burrows, leading the Americans, declared, " We are going to fight both ends and both sides of this ship as long as the ends and the sides hold together.“  Both Blyth and Burrows were killed or mortally wounded during the first few minutes of the battle.  The battle lasted 30 minutes and left the HMS Boxer in ruins.
The third USS Enterprise remained in service, patrolling and suppressing pirates, slave-traders, and smugglers until she was shipwrecked on Little Curacao Island in the West Indies in 1823.

Enterprise IV

The fourth USS Enterprise  was a 197 ton schooner, armed with two 9 pound guns and eight 24 pound carronades, and outfitted with a full complement of 72 men.  She was launched on the 26th of October 1831, and sailed for South America in 1832.  Here she patrolled the Brazil Station until 1834.  Next, she cruised to the Far East, then proceeded to Hawaii and then to Mexico.  From there she continued to the west coast of South America which she patrolled until 1839.  The ship left Valparaiso, Chile, rounded the Horn, and returned to Philadelphia where it was inactivated in July 1839.  It was recomissioned in November and returned to its duties protecting U.S. commerce on the coast of South America until 1844 when it was decommissioned and sold.

Enterprise V
The fifth USS Enterprise was a steam corvette with auxiliary sail power.  It had a displacement of 1375 tons, a crew of 184 men, traveled at a speed of 11.4 knots, and was armed with an 11-inch moth bore, four 9-inch broadside guns, one 60-pounder pivot, and 1 short Gatling gun.  It was commissioned in 1877.
Its first assignment was to surveying operations at the mouth of the Mississippi River, and its next assignments were similar operations at the Amazon and Madiera Rivers. 
From 1883 to 1886, the ship sailed on a hydrographical survey which took it around the world. 
Later, it was used for training and practice for the U.S. Naval Academy and the Massachusetts Maritime Academy.  The USS Enterprise was returned to the navy in 1909 and then  sold.   

Enterprise VI
The sixth Enterprise was a motor patrol craft  purchased by the Navy in 1916 .  It was transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries in 1919.

USS Enterprise--Part 2 (Role of the carrier Enterprise in World War II): coming tomorrow